justification, epistemic

justification, epistemic
   One is epistemically justified in holding a belief if one cannot be blamed for holding it, even if it turns out to be false. Common suggestions for what epistemic justification entails include possessing adequate evidence and being able to rebut counter-evidence. While it was once widely believed that justified true belief was both necessary and sufficient for knowledge, in a famous paper Edmund Gettier undermined the latter assumption by identifying justified true beliefs that do not appear to be knowledge. Gettier's argument initiated a period of intense debate among epistemologists regarding the nature of epistemic justification and the possibility of yet a fourth criterion for knowledge. Among the other items up for debate has been the term 'justification' itself, which Alvin Plantinga has advocated abandoning since it implies a contentious deontological epistemology.
   See epistemology; reason
   Further reading: Alston 1989b; Audi 2003; Gettier 1963; Swinburne 2001

Christian Philosophy . . 2015.

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